Istanbul Aydin University
Indeed, the Arab region is considered one of the world's most inflamed regions in terms of internal and regional conflicts and crises. Particularly, Yemen which has been suffering over the period between 1945 and 2012 from the scourge of instability, military and political conflict, and that was a motive for the international community represented on International Organizations and Regional Organizations to support Yemen, in order to solve conflicts and prevent human rights in Yemen. However, the point of departure for this study is examining the roles and functions of International Organizations and Regional Organizations in Yemen over the period between 1945 and 2012. This study seeks to measures the roles of International Organizations and Regional Organizations toward Yemen in terms of solving conflict and protecting human rights. This study resulted that Yemen had been faced with complex and multidimensional conflicts and crises over the period between 1945 and 2012, while International Organizations and Regional Organizations were ineffective actors Organizations in terms of the resolving conflicts and protecting human rights, except some succeeded attempts for some ROs in a few conflicts. International Organizations and Regional Organizations have been ignoring the impact roles of the internal and external factor in Yemen, and that resulted to decrease their efficiency and the sufficiency in Yemen.
Roles and functions, Yemen, International Organizations and Regional Organizations
In fact, the challenges facing the International Organizations, today, not less hard than ever, more crisis break out in more places, more abuses of international humanitarian law and the laws of human rights occur frequently, and more people were forced to flee by the conflict in a manner unprecedented in decades. Wherefore, International Organizations have been subjected, since at least two decades, criticism accusing it characterized by ineffectiveness, and became suffer from excessive bureaucratic, as well as criticism regarding their cost expenses, also IOs and ROs have failed in the Arab peace-keeping operations in more than one area. However, many research and studies that study roles of International Organizations and Regional Organizations have emerged, but most of these literatures have been characterized by their tendency to study the roles of International Organizations and Regional Organizations at the international level, On the other hand few literatures have been carried out in the area of national level, which can study the functions they played, as well the results they achieve on the real ground. However, this study will enhance the literatures that focus on the national level, this thesis seeks to understand a fundamental issue, namely, how these global actors ''International Organizations and Regional Organizations'' act with the political , and humanitarian crises that has faced Yemen over the period between 1945-2012. More specifically, this research has two objectives: First, to measure the effectiveness of international organization ad regional organizations in Yemen in terms of solving conflicts and protecting human rights, Second to figure out the challenges that face IOs and ROs in Yemen during implementing their missions, as well as, to find the Yemeni perceptions (officially and unofficial) toward IOs and ROs.
Yemen, over the period between 1945-2012 has faced many failures and conflicts in internal and external matters. International Organizations operating in Yemen are facing criticism for shortcomings in the implementation of its functions, which is seen in Yemen that the functions of these organizations only just "a voice phenomenon". Saddam Adwar confirmed that, several International Organizations working in Yemen were on occasion to talk about figures and statistics on the country's tragic situation without looking for serious solutions (Adwar,2013). Abdul Latif asserted that International Organizations seek to manage the crisis rather than searching for serious and fair solutions. This may increase the conflict to the worst, due to wasting time and opportunities through the traditional pattern of IOs in resolving international conflicts such as the United Nations which failed to resolve most of the work of the international crisis (Abdul Latif, 2014:13). On the other hand, the escalation of arguments on the assessment of the role of International Organizations or Regional Organizations as a third sector in Yemen, whether negative or positive over the past years. Nadia Al-Sakkaf explained that the Yemeni Government found itself unable to provide all the needs of the Yemeni community in regards to the rights and liberties of a citizen or sustainable development, and that was a significant opportunity for IOs to recognize themselves as a legitimate partner with the Yemeni government in the development in Yemen (Al-Sakkaf,2004). Therefore, Faisal Soufi believes that the dimensions of the Yemeni foreign policy towards International Organizations were represented in the economic dimension dramatically (Soufi,2003). Dhafer al-Ajmi considered the support and funding of International Organizations are economic and political interference for these organizations in the affairs of Yemen, which currently gets through the Security Council and the Gulf Cooperation Council and that Yemen has come through them as people or a country under trusteeship. (Dhafer,2015:5).
This study clarifies that the International Organizations and Regional Organizations failed to implement effective roles and functions toward Yemen in terms of settling conflicts and protecting human rights. This study has two main hypotheses: First, The International Organizations and Regional Organizations are ineffective actors in Yemen, in terms of settling conflicts and protecting human rights in Yemen. Second, the internal and external factors in Yemen decrease the efficiency and the sufficiency of International Organizations in Yemen. Methodology and design used for this specific study based on qualitative design methods, which include from Journals, oral data, Official statements, Conferences, Press report, that may be utilized in supporting the argument.
1 Historical Evolution of International Organizations
The emergence of International Organizations was not a coincidence. In fact, it was a result of what the world was suffering from; the scourge of instability, military and political conflict, economic monopoly, civilian war and racial discrimination. A ‘solidarity of states’ at a global level was required in order for these dilemmas to be eliminated. Through the agreement on new concepts of global regulation, concepts of international legitimacy and law will solidify. Members of these regulations accept to subject their disputes with other states under the legitimacy of the international law, which must ensure respect for all basic legal principles.
The emerging of International Organizations was initiated by the idea of the international conferences, due to the developments which have occurred in the scope of the secretariats of the conferences, especially the conferences which deal with some common issues within many states and therefore take their decisions by consensus. Consequently, the participating members in the conference were looking to take a common position through international institution to exercise effective authority on the global level, in order to get a consensus position among the participating countries in the conference. On other the hand, it does not impose an external will, but the state members have an independent self-will of all, and this international regulation has an independent secretariat, which leads to decisions being taken by simple majority.
The idea of establishing the International Organization emerged at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Reinalda called this period by the invention of the multilateral conference (Johnson,2011,734). This period started from the Vienna Conference in 1814 and 1815 until the beginning of the First World War. Furthermore, because of the 1863 Conference in Geneva, the first international organization was established in Geneva Switzerland for humanitarian and social concern "The International Committee of the Red Cross". The purpose of this organization deals with protection of the sick and wounded during combat in European countries. The development of the process of industrialism occurred of Labor revolutions, as well as the development of transportation in Europe led to the exchange of workers between European countries, all that contributed to the consolidation idea of the establishment of international organizations. The innovations associated with the rise of industrialism and the introduction of new methods of transport and communication stimulated the creation of special-purpose agencies, usually called public international unions, designed to facilitate the collaboration of governments in dealing with economic, social, and technical problems. Notable among these were the International Telegraphic Union (1865) and the Universal Postal Union (1874), which survived to become specialized agencies of the United Nations system (the former under the title International Telecommunication Union) after World War II. In 1899, the effectual steps had begun: The phenomenal development of international organization by The Hague Conferences. For the first time, we could see the small states were admitted beside great powers sharing the idea and discussing the world concerns, and this conference included the extra-European states, as well as European states, the extra-European states were invited to participate in collective political deliberations.The emergence of international organizations was barely in the nineteenth century, but according to many scholars of international relations, international organizations begin historically in 1919 at the Versailles Peace Conference. The real aims of the gathering were related to achieving many national interest groups, as well as writing a peace treaty, advancing public health, exchanging many of the workers and other issues related to the cause of peace or the laws of war between the victorious powers or in the world. However, the Treaty on Peace Conference at Versailles initiated the formation of the League of Nations in 1920; the first international organization established based on the idea of "peacekeeping common security". The establishment of the League of Nations and its affiliate, the International Labour Organisation, at the end of World War I represented the first attempt to combine into one general organization the disparate elements of organizational development which had emerged during the previous century. But the League of Nations was not functioning properly in terms of facing the fascist powers in the world and preventing the occurrence of the Second World War. The League of Nations had failed on its primary mission which was to maintain world peace and prevent war, because of that, the League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations in 1945 after World War II. Then the world had seen the proliferation of regional organizations establishing, such as the African Union, the Arab League, the European Union, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Then, International Organizations started to establish international agencies, known as international bodies in the global administrative around the world; that was a new development of ‘‘global governance or global administrative law.
This study contributes to summarize the phenomenon of the emergence of International Organizations experienced three basic phases, and each of these historical phases have given their contribution to the evolution of the phenomenon of International 0rganizations: The first phase: International organizations in the period from ''1815 until 1914'', which started from the Vienna Conference in 1814 and 1815 until the beginning of the First World War, noting that the actual development of the permanent organizations did not occur until the second half of the twentieth century. In this period, we can say the reasons beyond the evolution of international organizations belong to a common interest or due to some social issues need and problems between the states, like European Conferences, International Federations, Public International Federations, transportation between states and committees' rivers, Rail Transport, Post, Social Affairs, Economic Affairs, and Scientific Affairs. The second phase: the phase between ''the two world wars'' which had witnessed the establishment of the League of Nations and the International Labour Organization in the treaty of Versailles, and this phase extended to the establishment of the Permanent International Court of Justice and by the end of World War II, and the reason beyond the rise of the phenomenon of Intergovernmental Organizations in this period was the concerned with international peace and security. The third phase is ''a post-World War II'', starting from the end of World War II and extends until the present time, of which the establishment of the United Nations and other international and regional organizations. This study argues that the period between 1918–1945 had rising of international organizations and reason of the rise of the phenomenon of Intergovernmental Organizations in this period was the concerned with international peace and security, on the other hand, the economic and social issues needs to some explanation or it took less interest among international concerns, as well as the period from 1949- the present has proliferation of international organizations.
2 The Effectiveness of IOs and ROs in the World
The element of international society has always been present in the modern international system because at no stage can it be said that the conception of the common interests of states, of common rules accepted and common institutions worked by them, has ceased to exert an influence (Bull 2012:40). According to Bull, ‘a society of states (or international society) exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values, form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bounded by a common set of rules in their relations with one another, and share in the working of common institutions’ (Bull 2012:40). Furthermore, scholars of International Relations have given more attention for International Organizations and Regional Organizations, which may play effective roles in several fields, as the security, economic development, and societal development. The increasing number of international organizations is parallel to the increasing level of economic, political, cultural and social transactions between individuals, societies and states (Ataman, 2000, :152). However, International Organizations (IOs and ROs) are essential but argumentative actors in world politics today (Gutner & Thompson, 2010:227).
Muhittin Ataman argued that it is difficult to analyze international politics and behaviors of nation-states without attaching great importance of non-state actors (Ataman,2003:62). According to Alexander Andreev International Organizations are effective actors in the world, they are providing many roles on a variety of issues which may come to dominate the international agenda, not only security and military issues but also economic, politics, and social (Andreev, 2007:1). Muhittin Ataman supported the Andreev's arguments he asserted that Nation-States are no longer able to solve their problems only by themselves, but States may continue to be key actors in global governance. He argued that states cannot deal with problems such as acid rain, nuclear contamination of the atmosphere, climatological changes, shortage of food, poverty, overpopulation, and insufficient natural resources (Ataman,2003:60). According to Neoliberals assumption, International Organizations are an effective actor in the world system, the world has witnessed a shift in the balance of political activity from the sovereign state to a number of strengthened globally functional institutions. International Organizations have become essential instruments within the international system, they have involved in these conflicts and shaped national, regional and international policies (Ataman,2003 :62).
In contrast, Kenneth Waltz argued that International Organizations and Regional Organizations have not any effective roles in world affairs (Waltz, 1979: 96). Waltz asserted from realist's perspective that International Organizations are simply instruments of states. He believed that International Organization only have marginal power, giving way to an arena of power relations between States, making them a reflection of the distribution of power in the international system. He claims that states cannot rely on International Organizations for policy solutions, due to International Organizations and Regional Organizations use their authority, knowledge, and rules to act autonomously in ways that may reflect the interests and mandates of superpower States. Whereas some scholar of International Relations argued that International Organizations produce inefficient outcomes and became ineffective actors due to the bureaucratic dysfunction in some International Organizations System which led to being a key source of undesirable behavior (Gutner & Thompson,2010:229). Moreover, International Organizations have been subjected, criticism accusing it characterized by ineffectiveness, and became suffer from excessive bureaucratic, as well as criticism regarding their cost expenses, also IOs and ROs have failed in the settlement of disputes, protecting human rights, and providing aids in more than one region (Helm& Sprinz, 2000). The Internal problems that have suffered by IOs such as the United Nations and Arab League, besides the fact that the United Nations is the bureaucratic organization characterized by political cronyism, in many cases, only resulted to decrease their ability on producing their functions and roles toward the world.
Bureaucratic dysfunction can clearly impact an IOs performance in numerous ways, but these arguments proved to be inadequate and inefficient regarding the measurement of the effectiveness of International Organizations. Furthermore, some scholars have looked directly at the issue of the effectiveness of international institutions through the transparency of IOs and ROs in their decision making, which also can subject to accountability mechanisms that meet with democratic norms. Due to that International Organizations are the product of state interests, and the ability of IOs to act independently to shape outcomes is a function of their relationship with states, especially the nature of the initial delegation “contract” and of the control mechanisms established by states(Gutner & Thompson, 2010:230). Another Reason is for outcome and impact measures is the availability of comparable data. Most of the reports of the IOs and ROs are apply impact-based measures of performance use indicators from existing databases, like macroeconomic data on growth and unemployment, or data on the emission of pollutants. Statistics at the country level are nowadays comprehensive and reliable, although often limited to particular regions or groups of countries (Tallberg, Sommerer & S.L ,2015:8).
However, International Organizations and Regional Organizations were emerged to be an effective actor in terms of settling disputes, protect human rights, make trade freer and fairer, promote gender equality, reform domestic legal systems, address global environmental problems, and reduce corruption. But today International Organizations and Regional Organizations are subject to constant criticism for producing poor results while others are praised for accomplishing difficult tasks despite political and resource constraints. Nevertheless, when the world has witnessed the begun of the violent conflict, it is very plausible that effective international regimes will be able to limit duration of severity of such conflicts as opposed to ineffective regimes Furthermore, International Organizations may be successfully established, this does not guarantee that they will have effective roles in all world affairs. IO and ROs performance vary substantially over time and across tasks. While it is widely recognized that IOs sometimes produce ineffective results or unintended consequences.
3 The Roles and Functions of IOs and ROs in Yemen over the period between 1945 and 2011
Yemen is a state, which belongs to a number of International Organizations; it is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Moreover, Yemen has permitted limited participation in the Gulf Cooperation Council after the Supreme Council agreed to include the Republic of Yemen to ten specialized organizations working within the framework of the Cooperation Council. In addition, Yemen is a signatory to various international agreements on agricultural commodities, commerce, defense, economic and technical cooperation, finance, and postal matters. However, Yemen, over the period between 1945 and 2012 has faced many failures and conflicts in internal and external matters. As a result of the nature of these problems and crises, as well as the challenges and conflicts that Yemen faced (Van,1994), International community representatives such as the UN, OIC, AL, and GCC have been criticized that they are just phenomena voice in terms of their effective roles and functions toward Yemen between 1945-2012. However, this study will measure the roles and functions of International Organizational (United Nations and Organization of Islamic Cooperation) and Regional Organizations (Gulf Cooperation Council and Arab League) in Yemen in terms of the settling conflicts and protecting human rights over the period 1945 and 2012.
By examining for the roles of the United Nations (UN) in some Yemeni conflicts such as the war of 1963 and the war of 1994, this study argues that the United Nations as usually play the roles of mediator between the parties of the dispute to resolve the conflict. However, mostly those roles were insufficient and ineffective in order to solve these conflicts or protect human rights. UN in sometimes goes on issuing a few resolutions which call for stopping the conflict, nevertheless, these resolutions had no impact in the conflicts or wars, the most of wars have seen a growing number of military and civilian casualties, and also these conflicts were ended by the victory of one of the parties . This indicated that the roles of the United Nations were ineffective roles, the UN could not stop or reduce these wars in Yemen, or in sometimes could not even impose a cease-fire on some wars. This study argues that the UN’s ‘dilemma’ in Yemen lies in the lack of understanding by the UN for the specificity and complexities of Yemen that make it an extraordinary country, even with its conflicts and wars. The political and regional complexities in Yemen have proven the existence of obstacles for the United Nations peace process, as well as the diplomatic suggestions of envoys of the UN in Yemen. This study emphasizes that the reason for the UN’s failure lies in its political roles in the modern history of Yemen, its reliance on regional organizations and actors, which dramatically deteriorated the settlement of conflicts in Yemen and decrease their sufficiency. Therefore, over the period between 1945 and 2012 , the UN issued only six resolutions in Yemen, this indicates the lack of effective roles from UN that it is incompetent in keeping the peace process in the Yemen area.
Regarding the roles of the Arab League (AL) toward Yemen during the period between 1945 and 2012, these roles were between failure and success. However, the Arab League failed to play effective roles in most of the conflicts that faced Yemen during the period between 1945 and 2012, such as the Yemen civil war in 1962, the War of 1994, and Yemen crisis in 1948, this study found that the roles of the Arab League in these conflicts were limited to using the traditional pattern which depended on the roles of mediator and sending delegations. On other hand, these roles had no impact on these wars and the reason behind its failure or ineffectiveness in resolving these conflicts was its attempts to resolve the conflicts outside the border of Yemen. Arab League depended on external factors in the settlement of the Yemeni conflict and ignoring the main parties of the dispute and that led to decrease its sufficiency and efficiency in Yemen regarding resolving conflicts and protecting human rights. While, Arab League had succeeded in resolving a few conflicts such as the Border war of 1979 between North Yemen and South Yemen, and the border crisis between North Yemen and South Yemen in 1972. This study discovered that Arab League succeeded in resolving these disputes when it took an unusual attitude which lies on ignoring or not giving a chance for any foreign parties or external factors to achieve their interests and getting involved in this conflict, therefore that resulting through decreased the risks and increased efforts in resolving the dispute, and achieving reconciliation between the two parties of the conflict.
Regarding to the roles of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in Yemen over the period between 1945 and 2012, this study argues that since the establishment of OIC, Yemen has undergone several political crises as well as economic difficulties, civilian war and religious people in the path of change in the last five decades. That led the international actors, such as the UN, AL or GCC, to adopt many of the political initiatives, in order to defuse the fighting and violence in Yemen. While there was a total absence of the OIC during the last decades, it did not have any effective or ineffective roles in Yemen or even humanitarian and social roles. The political performance of the OIC in Yemen was characterized by a gap of inactivity (Yilmaz,2003). This study found that the reasons for the absence of the political roles of the OIC in Yemen were due to the absence of its representative office in Yemen in comparison to the offices of other international organizations such as the UN, and GCC. Also due to its institutional failure, OIC found itself in a difficult impasse that lies in their revivalism ability to meet challenges in the Islamic area. OIC failed to coordinate plans and policies among the Member States, at least in the economic, social, technical and technological aspects, with the impossibility of coordination in the political aspects.
Concerning the roles of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) toward Yemen which is differ from time to time. This study claims that GCC in the period between 1981 and 1990 was an ineffective actor toward Yemen, due to many reasons including Saudi Arabia's attitude toward Yemen which was trying to ignoring Yemen because of the border tension with North Yemen, and diplomatic relations between South Yemen and the Soviet Union, as well as, because of the ideological and military conflict between the two states of Yemen (Northern and Southern) which reflected on the nature of the political relations between both parts of Yemen and the GCC due to their fears of the transmission of the Yemeni problem within the Council in the event of an accession. While this study found that the roles of the GCC in the period between 1990 and 2001 toward Yemen were between lack in adopting roles due to some remained obstacles regarding the border dispute and Yemen-Iraq relations (Tamer,2005), and playing actual roles after regaining their relations with Yemen .In the first half of period of 1990 and 2001 GCC played a negative role in Yemen which had impacted on the stability and security of Yemen (Basurrah,2002)., due to the attitude of the Yemeni Government toward the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait during the period of 1990 -1994, led to the collapse of the Yemen-GCC relations and increased border tensions with Saudi Arabia. On the other hand, GCC was an effective actor in Yemen during the second half of this 1990 and 2001period, GCC during this period produced cooperative relations in several fields after the settlement of the disputes between Yemen and the states of the GCC. Whereas, GCC in the period between 2001 and 2012 play effective roles in several fields in Yemen including political field. GCC in this period reconsidered his fears and concerns about Yemen, GCC found that Yemen is an influential country within its regional due to the emergence of Al-Houthi armed rebellion starting in 2004, the Southern movement in 2007, and growing Al-Qaeda activities in Yemen.
4 The Roles and Functions of IOs and ROs in Yemen toward the Yemeni Uprising of 2011
A Massive political shift has pervaded the Middle East since the outbreak of revolutions and movements of protest against the Arab regimes during the period between 2011and 2014, starting with the Tunisian revolution, Yemen and ending the Iraqi protests against the ruling regime. While the waves shifting and change some revolutions have taken peaceful direction for change, and some of them took other forms which moved away from the peaceful direction and spanned to the scope of the limited conflict and right up full-scale civil war. However, all these events put forward many questions about the role of International Organizations such as the UN, OIC, AL, and GCC which they carried upon themselves the responsibility of keeping international peace and security.
However, this study examines the roles and functions of IOs and ROs (UN, OIC, AL, and GCC) in Yemen during the Arab Uprising of 2011, in terms of settling this crisis and protecting the human rights.
This study found out that, during the Yemen Uprising of 2011 United Nations has adopted limited positions and inconspicuous which relying on the traditional pattern, UN was attempting to involve on this crisis, through making some declaration which expresses their concerns about the conflicts and human rights issues in Yemen, as well as issuing a few resolutions which call stopping the conflict condemning the use of violence in Yemen. On the other hand, this study argues that these attempts were insufficient and ineffective. UN did not provide any initiative which may stop the violations of the conflict during 2011. However, The main reason of the insufficient roles and functions of the UN in resolving the Yemeni disputes of 2011, was its substantial dependence on GCC and centering of its envoy to carry out a supervisory role of the GCC's roles. Whereas, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation was powerless to take any effective roles towards what is happening in Yemen during 2011. OIC had ignored what was happening in Yemen, the attitude of the Islamic Cooperation Organization toward what is happening in Yemen was limited in few statements only call for stop the violence and bloodshed, as well as calling for a serious dialogue on the reforms. The reason behind the failure of the OIC is that the policies of the OIC became a reflection of the political will of the major power member states in the organization. While the role of the Arab League towards the Yemeni Uprising of 2011 was similar to the roles of the UN. AL had adapted limited roles through issuing few statements call for stopping the violence and contributing to support the mediation and resolution efforts by the UN and GCC in this conflict. The role and attitude of the AL towards the Yemeni Uprising of 2011 was totally different, where the AL drop out the whole crisis of Yemen to the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Arab League's position in Yemen is associated with differences depending on the type of crisis, in particular, the variation of the regional environmental interests. The role of AL during the Yemen revolutions was weak to the degree of being as subordinate as a contributor to the mediation and resolution efforts of the UN and GCC. The AL was surprised by the Arab Spring, consequently, it failed to deal with a twofold status to maintain humanitarian protection for the protestors and to ensure the peaceful transfer of power that satisfy all disputing parties and lead to the mass demands of reforms. In contrast, the Gulf Cooperation Council had adopted effective position toward the Yemeni Uprising in 2011. This study found that the GCC had played actor roles in terms of settling this dispute, GCC could end the conflict by providing an initiative and imposed all the parties in the crisis to sign it. The reasons behind the success of the GCC in this conflict lies on the fears of the GCC from the repercussions of the Yemeni crisis on the gulf security, due to growing Iranian influence in the south of the Arabian Peninsula including Yemen, and the intensification of the political conflict in Yemen between political parties will lead to rising and spreading of acts of al-Qaeda in Yemen and the Houthi group.
5 The challenges which faced the IOs and ROs in Yemen
International Organizations in the areas of conflict in Yemen faces many challenges, most of these challenges are notably in the lack of security and instability. However, this study found out that there are many challenges and obstacles which face International Organizations and Regional Organizations in Yemen, which also resulted to decrease the efficiency and the sufficiency of International Organizations toward Yemen and became ineffective actors in terms of settling conflicts and protecting human rights. These challenges are:
First, Weak Government Management to Democratic Transition: the principles that animated the state of Yemen are human rights, freedoms, democracy and fight against tyranny. But there Yemen still witnessing a deviation from the democratic path, due to the internal conflicts between the Islamic movements (the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafi with all tendencies) and civil and secular liberal mainstream. Also, due to the structure of Yemen which relied on the roles of the tribe's leaders and religious figures in ruling the state. However, all these political components tend to shape the state ruling system according to their ideologies. Thus, these reasons were big challenges for international organizations operating in Yemen to work in the country that contains weak government Management.
Second, The dereliction on the official cooperation :the dereliction on the Official cooperation including all the involved parties of the Yemeni government, starting from the lack of granting the necessary facilities for International Organizations and Regional Organizations to implement their duties and roles, and ending by the administrative and financial corruption. The Yemeni government environment dominated by some characters of corruption and nepotism has negatively impacted on the performance of many international organizations that working in Yemen. Therefore, according to many Yemeni social activists that International Organizations made several intervened deals with some governmental individuals in Yemen, thus directors of these organizations earn a lot of money while carrying out their duties in Yemen. International organizations need to ensure that their funding goes to those who need it and is not misappropriated by the elite networks or simply absorbed by the bureaucracy.
Third, Lack of cooperation from the Yemeni community, due to a lack of awareness of the Yemeni community toward the relevance of the actual role of International Organizations and Regional Organizations in settling the conflict and providing services and aids to this community. In addition to the negative roles that are resulting from the corruption of the interfaces and community leaders such as sheiks (chiefs) and other leaders. Moreover, the culture of the community and community education in the field of development, which regrettably still weak, making International Organizations operating under the social environment, requires a great and intensive effort in the field of community outreach.
Fourth, Imbalances and lawlessness of the Yemeni society: the imbalances and lawlessness of the Yemeni society have prevented a large number of international organizations from providing services and exercising their duties in Yemen. Yemen has lived for a long phase tragedy situation overall political, economic, and social levels. The humanitarian situation has seen a significant deterioration, especially after stopping of several international institutions to provide basic assistance to the Yemenis. According to international organizations data, the tens of international humanitarian organizations in Yemen suffers from many challenges which prevented them from delivering aid to the areas affected by wars. Among these challenges, the destruction of roads, to armed militias prevented the relief convoys from entering the conflict zones. As complaining about some international organizations of its international staff not to grant visas to enter the country, so fundamental for those affected in several Yemeni province's relief aid stopped. The constancy of conflicts and wars in Yemen in the last decade ended the operating on the agenda of many organizations that are still trying to provide aid. Yemen's security concerns have been obstructed the implementation of wide-ranging projects of international organizations, so most of that projects had pulled out of the future plans of the international organization's programs over Yemen, due to Yemen’s deteriorating security situation.
6 Perceptions of Yemenis on the Impacts of the IOs and ROs toward Yemen
The Yemenis perceptions toward the roles and functions of International Organizations (IOs, ROs), are different in according to official perceptions and the Yemeni society perceptions; therefore, this study tries to figure out those perceptions including both sides criticism perceptions or grateful perceptions.
First, the perceptions of the Yemeni Government: The escalation of arguments on the assessment of the role of international organizations as a third sector in Yemen, whether negative or positive over the past years. This study found out that of the perceptions of the Yemeni Government toward the International Organizations and Regional Organizations represented in two different views: The first part has positive perceptions and consider these Organizations as an effective partner with the Yemeni Government. Faisal Soufi Media Advisor to the former President of the Yemen Republic declared that the dimensions of the Yemeni foreign policy towards International Organizations were represented in the economic and political dimensions dramatically (Faisal ,2003). Nadia Al-Sakkaf the Information Minister asserted that the Yemeni government is grateful for the support of those who call them development partners from abroad, whether on the bilateral level or on the level of governmental organizations and their agencies (Nadia ,2014). According to Wael Zaqout, the director of the World Bank's Yemen office, he declared that the Yemeni government valued the partnership with International Organizations, which they contribute to improving development results and they will help the government to better understand the challenges and opportunities, in line with the Yemeni context (Alhayat News,2014). Furthermore, the Yemeni government is looking from IOs and ROs to continue their support to enable Yemen from achieving its objectives in promoting nation-building and poverty alleviation.
On the other hand, the second side valued the roles of IOs and ROs, but they criticized the performance of some International Organizations and Regional Organizations, Ibrahim Sharaf al-Din whom in charge of international organizations at the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation valued the roles of International organizations in Yemen, but also at the same time he criticized the performance of some of the International Organizations working in the country because of what he called amplify problems, and take money from the names of the poor in Yemen in addition to providing assistance unusable and contrary to the specifications (Nashwan News, 2013). He confirmed that there are just simple up aids delivered to Yemen from international organizations working in the country. Balqis Abu Asbaa, President of the Federation of Civil Society Organizations asserted that many International Organizations operating in Yemen engaged financiers by its statistics and data that appears the worse side of the Yemen situation in order to receive huge funds without the arrival of aid to those in most of the beneficiaries of the target in Yemen according to some officials in the Yemeni government and observers (Balqis,2015). She argued that the lacked in an accurate database of real field surveys of the nature and extent of the damage and the effects of the bloody events taking place in Yemen, and that led International Organizations to rely on the policy of estimations and exaggerations.
These organizations take instability as an excuse for their failure to their performance with financiers, and therefore they are distributing some aid to areas that are relatively safe to claim that they have done their jobs correctly so that they can request funding again (Abdullah,2016). Furthermore, the second part viewed that the Yemeni government may considered the lack of security as an excuse for the failure of their performance in front of International organizations. Due to, the continuous violence and conflicts in Yemen has caused the suspension of funding for some International Organizations (Abdullah,2016). This study argues that International Organizations that are working in Yemen should work seriously, pointing out that the difficult humanitarian situation in the country does not afford such practices. Also, International Organizations should work in partnership with the government side to ensure the provision of quality services and meet the needs of the target groups. International and Regional Organizations supposed to enhance the efforts of the Yemeni government in the areas of development, economic and humanitarian services, in other words, IOs and ROs supposed to play a role as a partner in achieving comprehensive economic development.
Second, the perceptions of the Yemeni people:
International organizations operating in Yemen are facing criticism for shortcomings in the implementation of its functions, which is seen in Yemen that the functions of these Organizations only just "a voice phenomenon" (Adwar ,2013). A number of International Organizations working in Yemen come out from time to time to talk about numbers and statistics about the tragic situation in the country, without conducting field surveys and do not depend on any reference in it, which raises dissatisfaction as a result of those incorrect and exaggerated figures (Balqis,2015). Moreover, some Yemeni considered roles and functions of the IOs and ROs as an economic and political interference in the Yemeni affairs (Dhafer,2015:5), Such as the current roles of the Gulf Cooperation Council which made Yemen under their trusteeship, in terms of impact on the Yemen Policy. A large sample of intellectuals and graduate students asserted that since tens of years and these operating international organizations in Yemen could not reach to be an effective actors in terms of settling conflicts, preventing human rights, and also providing aids. Many Yemeni local observers criticized the financing policy and projecting policy of international organizations that currently in force in Yemen. Moreover, they argued if international organizations will continue this policy their programs and projects would become far-fetched from Yemen development (Al khabarnow News,2019). According to many Yemenis, they asserted despite the enormous sums that spend of these organizations in their development programs or in supporting government bodies of Yemen or supporting local non-governmental organizations (AbdulMalik,2019). However, the funding and policies of the international governmental and non-governmental organization play negative roles support that led to encouraging corruption and failure of these development programs and objectives. Many Yemenis called on International Organizations which are operating in Yemen, to not amplification and work with government agencies to ensure the success of the partnership between Yemen and those organizations. They stressed that the significant uncertainties, irregularities and random on the work of international organizations in Yemen. Mustafa Nasr the President of the Economic Information Centre of Yemen, said that there is a difficult humanitarian situation in Yemen exploited by international organizations to achieve the hidden interests, without working in the social circles and in the depth of the Yemeni community (Mustafa,2016). Nasr confirmed that the international organizations come out talking about disturbing figures regarding, for example, the humanitarian situation in Yemen, and thus inflation numbers that while it did not make field surveys and real numbers. Many journalists and scholars argued that "There are suspicions and there are hidden interests to amplify the numbers regarding the humanitarian situation in Yemen by international organizations, and most those organizations rely in their work only on press releases'' (AbdulMalik,2019). This study argues that the perceptions of the Yemenis including all the varieties of people toward the roles and functions of International Organizations in Yemen, were pessimistic perceptions, due to the poor implementation of their projects, programs, and policies of international and regional organizations operating in Yemen, in terms of preventing conflicts, protecting human rights, and providing aids.
This study concludes with the idea that Yemen had been faced with complex and multidimensional conflicts and crises over the period between 1945 and 2012, while International Organizations and Regional Organizations were ineffective actors Organizations in terms of the resolving conflicts and protecting human rights, except some succeeded attempts for some ROs in a few conflicts. International Organizations and Regional Organizations have been ignoring the impact roles of the internal and external factor in Yemen, and that resulted in the inability of IOs and ROs to carry out their functions and roles and decreased their efficiency and the sufficiency in Yemen. This study argues that the roles of the International Organizations toward Yemen during the period between 1945 and 2012 were between the absence of effective roles that may would contribute on resolving Yemeni conflicts and the attempts of playing limited roles through asserting on mediation roles and sending delegations, or in sometimes just relying on monitoring a set of reports that express their concerns about the conflicts and human rights issues in Yemen, as well as issuing a few resolutions which call stopping the conflict. And the reasons behind the ineffective roles of the International Organizations toward Yemen lies on its dependence on the external factors such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt in its roles and functions toward Yemen, and that led to decrease their efficiency and sufficiency. While there was a total absence of some organizations during the period between 1945 and 2012. This study found out that International Organizations and Regional Organizations in the areas of conflict in Yemen faces many challenges, most of these challenges are notably in the lack of security and instability. The specificity and complexities of the environment of Yemen, in terms of the continuation of conflicts and wars, which led to delaying the democratic transition in Yemen. Also, lack of cooperation from the Yemeni community and dereliction on the official cooperation in Yemen were challenges for IOs and ROs. Furthermore, these challenges may became obstacles for International Organizations and Regional Organizations in Yemen, and that also resulted to decrease the capacity and efficiency of International Organizations toward Yemen and became ineffective actors in most of the disputes, in terms of settling conflicts and protecting human rights. This study figured out that the Yemeni official perceptions toward International Organizations and Regional Organizations were divided into two sides, the first one side has grateful perceptions, and they consider these organizations as an effective partner with the Yemeni State in several fields including political and humanitarian fields . The second parts valued the roles of these organizations, but they criticized the performance of these organizations that work in Yemen, they argued that International Organizations work to amplifies problems, and take money from the names of the poor in Yemen in addition to providing assistance unusable and contrary to the standard specifications. Moreover, some of them see that the roles of these organization are only political interference in Yemeni affairs. Whereas the perceptions of the Yemenis people have relied on the pessimistic side, many Yemenis including intellectuals, journalists, and graduate students asserted that despite International Organizations have been operating in Yemen since a long time, but it could not moving to be effective actors in terms of settling conflicts, preventing human rights, and also providing aids. Many Yemeni local observers criticized the financing policy of international organizations that currently in force in Yemen, which is only resulted to encouraging corruption and failure of these development programs and objectives. This study found that the major reasons behind the ineffectiveness of the IOs and ROs in Yemen representing in continuous deterioration of the security situation during the period between 1945 and 2012. Also, the absence of the actual political roles of some IOs and ROs in Yemen, due to the impact of external factors in Yemen on the roles and functions of IOs and ROs. Moreover. the failure in state management in Yemen resulted in difficulty in achieving internal political consensus or agreement on the political issues, therefore, international organizations become powerless to play effective roles or merely providing humanitarian roles. Further, International Organizations lacked in an accurate database of real field surveys of the nature and extent of the damage and the effects of the bloody events taking place in Yemen, and that led International Organizations to rely on the policy of estimations and exaggerations.
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